Big Hand Blunder: Greg Raymer vs Aran Kanter WSOP 2005

Well its not often I get to critique a pros blunder, but this one stood out as a whopper, which turned the tables at the 2005 WSOP and propelled a young internet player to the final table in place of Greg Raymer who was on a miraculous path to challenge for the WSOP main title for the second consecutive year.

Down to 26 players, Raymer is one of the chip leaders with around 4 million. With the blinds a very comfortable 20 and 40 thousand, he picks up KK in middle position and puts in a raise to 100 thousand. Does that seem small to you? It does to me, even though it is a well concealed 2 and a half times the blind, it literally invites a draw out. Raising that small, compared to your stack in an internet tournament is tantamount to limping in. What it also negates is being able to judge what your opponent may have later in the hand when it could become crucial, as it did in this case.

With a small raise you are inviting low pairs, low connecters, weak suited aces, weak suited kings, and unpaired big cards. With such a variety of possibilities, you are essentially playing blind, and hoping your kings hold up. Kanter calls in the cutoff followed by Ivey and Hechem folding the blinds. The pot is around 300 thousand including the antes. The flop comes 6c, 3h, 5d. Raymer could look at this as a good flop, assuming Kanter called with big cards. Myself, I see straight chemistry, and definitely something that could jive with a call of ace, 4 suited or 8, 7 suited. When there is chemistry on the board you need to get your opponent out. If he calls a big bet, or re-raises, I am apt to let the hand go if I am playing another big stack. If my opponent is significantly shorter, I will put him all in without fear of jeopardizing my tournament.

Raymer follows up his wimpy preflop bet with an even more pathetic flop bet of 150 thousand. When assessing this flop, you need to bet big, and cut your losses with that. With an over bet here, you either eliminate the danger, or you determine that you are beat, or on way to being beat. But this is also your stop-loss bet. Once a reaction is taken by your opponent, you will know to fold, or check it down, save for other intelligence factors. Curiously, Raymer moves rather quickly through this hand, failing to assess this game critical intersect properly. Clearly, at this point Raymer failed to realized he was not the favorite in this hand anymore. Turn card is 7h. This is a great card for Kanter as it gives him his heart draw, and puts a scare card out there him to take it at the river. Raymer simply seems not to notice.

The odd thing about this hand is that Raymer was in fact, ahead all the way. Kanter played this hand like an internet rookie calling the flop bet with only a back door flush draw, and over cards. He could have been planning to take this pot from Raymer with a bluff on the river, but that doesn’t explain his rash all in call after reraising Raymers 300 thousand turn bet. But when Raymer does make his turn bet and gets reraised, in that spot, with my tourney on the line, and that board, I am out of the hand, even if I still feel I am ahead. It is simply too risky, and too probably that your kings are beat. You think I am over analyzing? I have laid down aces in this spot, several times in money play in online tournaments. Maybe just a couple thousand was on the line, not millions!

I take this situation to reiterate several things here. Play back the hand, and figure your opponents possible hole cards. Investigate the flop by knowing what the nuts are at all times. Do not go up against another stack in marginal situations while moving up the pay scale. Raymers actions here would have been perfectly fine if he were up against someones last 700 thousand chips, but as it turned out, and I quote Norman Chad from ESPN, Kanter makes an horrendous play and puts a big hurt on Raymer. The heart came for Kanter who should have really never been in the hand, but his awful play was surpassed by Raymer in that particular exchange.

Traditional Hawaiian Sports

Besides doing “the essentials’ of life, the everyday Hawaiian commoner found some time to wile away the hours in pursuit of pastimes. One of their favorite pastimes was the pursuit of traditional Hawaiian sports. The Hawaiian people developed a very rich and interesting set of sports that we wished to share with you.

Holua is one of the most interesting of traditional sports in Hawaii, that dates back many years.The sport involved the use of a long, narrow sled, called a holua. The sled was made to navigate on a single runner. A small, long trench was dug down a hill, made smooth, and covered with grass.The participant would get on top of the sled, be given a good push, and was expected to ride the sled down hill, as far as possible. The good ones could stay on for upwards of a mile! This sport makes skateboarding look simple.

War Games were also very popular among the Hawaiians. Small battles over territory precipitated the development of a series of games that would improve the skills of warriors. Some examples of those games included wrestling, boxing, archery, and javelin throwing. These types of games were often the hallmark of the Makahiki celebration. Hawaiian boxing was, perhaps, the best example of this type of sport. In Hawaiian boxing, two contestants would continue to hit one another until one gave up, or someone was knocked out. In addition, it was considered bad form to block a punch. Each punch thrown by the competitors had to be met square in the chin, as it were! Captain Cook records a time when some of his men participated in such a contest, only to get themselves thoroughly thrashed by the Hawaiians! It was not sport for the weak of heart.

Games of skill and chance were also very popular among the Hawaiians, especially up to the point when missionaries started preaching and teaching against gambling. The Hawaiian people had their own version of “the shell game,” which was called puhenehene and no’a. Players had to guess where a stone was hidden under a bundle of kapa. A game called konane was also very popular. It is not unlike modern day checkers. Finally, a game that was like bowling was also popular. It is called ulumaika, and involved the use of stone disks that were bowled between two upright sticks.

Races were very popular among early Hawaiians, as they often are in just about every culture. Hawaiians loved racing on foot, in canoes, and in the ocean (swimming.) Again, betting was a big part of the sporting activity. Needless to say, gambling was taken very seriously by early Hawaiians.

Spear Catching and Cliff Diving were among the more extreme sports of the early Hawaiians… As in the case of he’e holua, these types of dangerous sports were done to impress the audiences that watched them. There is a wonderful old story told of King Kamehameha, where he told 5 of his warriors to throw spears at him at the same time. The story goes that he caught two spears, dodges two, and deflected the fifth.

Surfing has got to top our list for the most popular traditional Hawaiian sport. Surfing was one of the most popular recreational pastimes of the early Hawaiians. If the north shore surfing rage is any indicator, the sport of surfing is still greatly loved today.

There are two types of surfing that were popular among the early Hawaiians. The first was called he’e holua, or mountain surfing. The more traditional water surfing was called he’enalu. Both of these styles of surfing were much ritualized. Both styles were a way for the early Hawaiians to express themselves.

He’e holua is a sport that is over 2000 years old. It involved riding a 30-60 lbs sled down a hill of lava rocks. It was not unheard of that surfers could reach speeds of up to 50 miles per hour. Traditional surfboards could be up to 20 feet in length, and weigh up to 150lbs. This is perhaps the most traditional Polynesian part of the Hawaiian heritage. Many ocean based cultures, though, have a history of riding of the waves of the ocean.

The Sport of Kings is probably the most unusual sport of all. In essence, the warfare that was conducted among tribes, regardless of the overall purpose, was considered sport. Even the Hawaiian word for battlefield can be translated as “playground.” Warfare, however, was banned during the Makahiki season. Otherwise, it was fair game to fight for fun! This was the Xgames Hawaiian style!

Traditional Hawaiian sports have the people of Hawaii a way to interact, have fun, improve fighting skills, and enjoy time together. More over, it was a ritualized expression of the culture itself. Traditional Hawaiian culture played hard and fought hard.

Aloha,

Mike

John Lennon – The Misunderstood Beatle

While watching Monday night football, on an uneventful evening on December 8, 1980, I was nursing a hangover, when I heard Howard Cosell interrupt the game with a news flash. John Lennon was shot in New York City? Could that be true? It was true. Later, he was pronounced dead. I was in shock. Then my brother, Mark, telephoned me with the news. We both were John Lennon fans.

The Beatles, the fab four of the 60s, were each given character descriptions or nicknames adopted by their fans. John was the smart one, Paul was the cute one, George was the mysterious one and Ringo was the funny one.

I always felt John Lennon’s character description or nickname, should have been dubbed the “misunderstood Beatle,” because he seemed to always stir up controversy concerning his beliefs. He couldn’t quite make his comments clear, and the media didn’t help.

Take for instance, the comment he made on March 4, 1966, when he said, “the Beatles are more popular than Jesus.” What he meant was that more people would go see the Beatles, than go to church on Sunday. Which may have been true. He generalized a wee bit by laying the blame on America, when he meant England.

Lennon was interviewed for the London Evening Standard by Maureen Cleave, who was a friend, and made an off-the-cuff remark regarding religion. Lennon said, “Christianity, will go. It will vanish and shrink. We’re more popular than Jesus now; I don’t know which will go first– rock and roll or Christianity. Jesus was all right but his disciples were thick and ordinary. It’s them twisting it that ruins it for me.”

On August 11, 1966, The Beatles held a press conference in Chicago, in order to address the growing furor.

Lennon: I suppose if I had said television was more popular than Jesus, I would have got away with it, but I just happened to be talking to a journalist friend (Maureen Cleave), and I used the word “Beatles” as a remote thing, not as what I think–as Beatles, as those other Beatles, like other people see us. I just said they are having more influence on kids and things than anything else, including Jesus. But I said it in that way, which is the wrong way.”

Reporter: Some teenagers have repeated your statements–“I like The Beatles more than Jesus Christ.” What do you think about that?

Lennon: Well, originally I pointed out that fact in reference to England. that we meant more to kids than Jesus did, or religion at that time. I wasn’t knocking it or putting it down. I was just saying it as a fact, and it’s true more for England than here. I’m not saying that we’re better or greater, or comparing us with Jesus Christ as a person or God as a thing, or whatever it is. I just said what I said and it was wrong. Or it was taken wrong. And now it’s all this.

Reporter: But are you prepared to apologize?

Lennon: I wasn’t saying whatever they’re saying I was saying. I’m sorry I said it really. I never meant it to be a lousy anti-religious thing. I apologize if that will make you happy. I still don’t know quite what I’ve done. I’ve tried to tell you what I did do, but if you want me to apologize, if that will make you happy, then OK, I’m sorry.

John Lennon returned to the subject later that year, when he told Look magazine that, “I believe Jesus was right, Buddha was right, and all of those people like that are right. They’re all saying the same thing–and I believe it. I believe what Jesus actually said–the basic things he laid down about love and goodness–and not what people say he said. If Jesus being more popular means more control, I don’t want that. I’d sooner they’d all follow us even if it’s just to dance and sing for the rest of their lives. If they took more interest in what Jesus–or any of them–said, if they did that, we’d all be there with them.

Although there was little reaction to his statement in England, Christians elsewhere embarked upon a massive campaign to destroy Beatle albums and other paraphernalia. The Archbishop of Boston admitted that he was probably right, but many still refused to forgive him.

I can relate to his controversial statement, because I have made similar statements, such as, when I drive by a gambling casino on a Sunday, I’ll say–“look at all those cars–try to pack them in a church parking lot.” Of course, my meaning was that gambling is more popular than Jesus. I hope that isn’t the truth–here in America. Am I in trouble for saying that?

All this didn’t bother Lennon, he continued using religious remarks in his songs, one was God, released in 1971. The lyrics are as follows:

God (words and music by John Lennon)

God is a concept

By which we measure

Our pain

I’ll say it again

God is a concept

By which we measure

Our Pain

I don’t believe in magic

I don’t believe in I-ching

I don’t believe in bible

I don’t believe in tarot

I don’t believe in Hitler

I don’t believe in Jesus

I don’t believe in Kennedy

I don’t believe in Buddha

I don’t believe in mantra

I don’t believe in Gita

I don’t believe in yoga

I don’t believe in kings

I don’t believe in Elvis

I don’t believe in Zimmerman

I don’t believe in Beatles

I just believe in me

Yoko and me

And that’s reality

The dream is over

What can I say?

The dream is over

Yesterday

I was a dream weaver

But now I’m reborn

I was the walrus

But now I’m John

And so dear friends

You just have to carry on

The dream is over

THE END

Once again, Lennon was misunderstood. He was put off by many Christians. I always understood the style of Lennon. I felt he was reaching out to question things we dared not ask. He was a buffer between reality and make believe. Some considered it threatening. I considered it harmless. Although he did say “I don’t believe in Jesus.” And he did say, “I don’t believe in bible.” Maybe he should have left them out of the song, at least to avoid controversy and save his career.. But, Lennon was Lennon, and he didn’t care. He was saying he has the freedom to say what he wants to say, or sing what he wants to sing. I’m sure it hurt his career. Paul McCartney’s career only blossomed. Not intending to leave out George and Ringo. Their careers remained stable.

I always thought a more fitting song for John Lennon would have been–Don’t Let Me Be Misunderstood, written and performed by a fellow musician and friend, Eric Burdon. He, also, authored a book under the same title.

In 1973, Lennon wrote and sang the song, Imagine, a very critical– but popular song. It questioned the existence of heaven and hell and no religion, too. This, too, was angered by Christians. His message was clear to me. He was simply stating, if there wasn’t any of these things he’s imagining, the world would live in peace–as one. What would there be to fight about? There would be no wars. Many wars are about religion. The song is all about imagination. He’s not a terrorist wanting to blow up the world. The lyrics are as follows:

Imagine

(words and music by John Lennon)

Imagine there’s no heaven

It’s easy if you try

No hell below us

Above us only sky

Imagine all the people

Living for today

Imagine there’s no countries

It isn’t hard to do

Nothing to kill or die for

And no religion too

Imagine all the people

Living life in peace

You may say I’m a dreamer

But I’m not the only one

I hope someday you’ll join us

And the world will be as one

Imagine no possessions

I wonder if you can

No need for greed or hunger

A brotherhood of man

Imagine all the people

Sharing all the world

You may say I’m a dreamer

But I’m not the only one

I hope someday you’ll join us

And the world will live as one

THE END

Lennon was always the outspoken one. Some say he was a hypocrite when he preached about love and peace–not war. In 1969, he demonstrated his beliefs in his penned song, Give Peace A Chance, after his departure from The Beatles, during his solo career.

He defended many rights and causes. He was an anti-war activist. His beliefs were misconstrued and often he was taken as a socialist or communist. President Nixon wanted him deported. Lennon stood up and fought for his right to stay where he loved to be–in New York City, U.S.A. Sadly enough, it was also the place he was killed by a deranged fan.

During his solo career, Lennon wrote and sang songs of rebellion with his political views. He would socialize with antiwar leaders, such as, Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman, and others. Lennon and his friends organized a concert in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in December of 1971, dubbed the “Free John Sinclair” concert. Sinclair was a local antiwar activist who was serving ten years in the state prison for selling two joints of marijuana to an undercover cop. Lennon appeared onstage along with Phil Ochs, Stevie Wonder and other musicians, plus antiwar radical Jerry Rubin and Bobby Seale of the Black Panthers. There was 20,000 in attendance; two days after the concert, the state of Michigan released John Sinclair from prison. During this time, a song written and sung by Lennon was released, entitled John Sinclair.

In 1972, Lennon released an anti-sexism song, entitled, Woman Is The Nigger of the World, implying that as black people were discriminated against in some countries, so were women globally. The lyrics are as follows:

Woman Is The Nigger of the World

(words and music by John Lennon)

Woman is the nigger of the world

Yes she is…think about it

Woman is the nigger of the world

Think about it…do something about it

We make her paint her face and dance

If she won’t be a slave, we say that she don’t love us

If she’s real, we say she’s trying to be a man

While putting her down, we pretend that she’s above us

Woman is the nigger of the world…yes she is

If you don’t believe me, take a look at the one you’re with

Woman is the slave of the slaves

Ah, yeah…better scream about it

We make her bear and raise our children

And then we leave her flat for being a fat old mother hen

We tell her home is the only place she should be

Then we complain that she’s too unworldly to be our friend

Woman is the nigger of the world…yes she is

If you don’t believe me, take a look at the one you’re with

Woman is the slave to the slaves

Yeah…alright…hit it!

We insult her every day on TV

And wonder why she has no guts or confidence

When she’s young we kill her will to be free

While telling her not to be so smart we put her down for being so dumb

Woman is the nigger of the world

Yes she is…if you don’t believe me, take a look at the one you’re with

Woman is the slave to the slaves

Yes she is…if you don’t believe me, you better scream about it

We make her paint her face and dance

We make her paint her face and dance

We make her paint her face and dance

We make her paint her face and dance

We make her paint her face and dance

We make her paint her face and dance

THE END

On a happier note, in 1971, Lennon, also, wrote and sang the song, entitled, Happy Xmas. This became a holiday favorite. It’s questionable why he left out Christ in Christmas. But “X” is the Greek symbol of Christ.

This year marks the 26th anniversary of the death of John Lennon. His killer is still imprisoned, as he should be. The music world was robbed of this musical genius. I sure miss his works and imagination. If it weren’t for his outspoken beliefs, he may have still been with us today. It may have been what killed him. But just imagine (I wonder if you can)–then there never would have been a John Lennon.

Titanic: A Tragedy Of Uncertainty – A Marxist Approach

In a world full of moving pictures, an industry had gain its continual popularity as this media-centered generation continued to patronizes these so-called films. Along the wide array of movie selections, there is this remarkable film under the direction of James Cameron, which captured not only the eyes of the people but also their hearts along the year 1997. This movie was entitled “Titanic” which was adapted from a real life ship called Titanic and coined as “the unsinkable ship”,but in opposition to this distinction, the ship unfortunately sank due to a chaotic circumstance which made the whole story historical. In accordance to this, the whole aesthetic of the movie was a complete package in a minimal way as possible. Specifically speaking, even though the whole setting just only circumnavigated within the ship itself, there are lots of happenings within it. And to initiate this review, the urge of interconnecting the film’s body to societal issues will be the glimpse to an eye-opening phenomenon which will bring answers to the long time conundrums of many people regarding this film. Probably, this movie was not new to the majority of people, however, as this movie had left an unforgettable trace to our lives, there is a need for me to excavate my personal insights. Through this, it can contribute to the vast majority of the next generations, who by then will learn that Titanic is not only a movie, especially that it inhibits peculiarity of appeal as it does not only tells a story, but also leaves a message, a life-changing message.

Initially, the movie started within a screenplay of an expedition to the shipwrecked Titanic. Along the journey, there is this man named Brock Lovett, a treasure hunter, who initiated the aim of hunting a rare diamond called the “Heart of the Ocean” together with his fellow researchers for the desire of making the diamond into a large amount of money. As time passed by, their emotions were uplifted by joy and excitement as they saw a safe, which in assumption, believed that the diamond resides there. After they had recovered the safe, their lip curls were turned into pure disappointments as no diamond were seen. However, there is this drawn image of a woman who wore the said diamond which somehow authenticate the existence of the diamond itself. Through this, they had regained their high hopes of seeing the diamond sooner or later. Through this, the whole team had led their searching to a woman named Rose Dawson Calvert. Within a perspective of a 17-year old Rose, she began her story telling by describing the luxurious appeal of the Titanic and quoted that the ship suits its description as the “Ship of Dreams”. In this case, Rose was a 1st class passenger but in spite of this privilege, she felt chained under the control of her mother, Ruth DeWitt Bukater, which made her be engaged to man named Cal Hockley. An engagement with less love but more of a modification to the family’s financial problems and for the retention of their statutory rights as high-class individuals. Through this, despite of her glamour stability in voyage, she felt uncomfortable and uneasy which gives her uncertain thoughts of just jumping from the edge of the deck. It’s like her dilemma was pushing herself to jump off a precipice of hopelessness. As soon as she stepped on the edge of the ship’s area, a man named Jack Dawson saw her which had insisted her to not continue her plan of jumping. Jack Dawson was a 3rd-class passenger who just had an opportunity of riding the Titanic for the fact he had won a bet through gambling. This scene of Jack and Rose together was the start of the real deal. They had spent many memories together and created an intimacy of friendship a midst of their differences of social classes as they were hindered by many people because of this factual information. Truly, the glimpse of social criticism took place. In spite of these obstacles and hindrances, they had still maintained their friendship all throughout the whole voyage until it was completely developed as love.

As the ship was subdivided into three parts, it also contains categorized sectors, in which 1st class persons had the privilege to stay within the luxury part of the ship while 3rd class individuals resides in a not so elegant area. And with that partition, the scenario where Rose dances in a not so elegant area, integrates the perception of Rose and Jack having a good and effective form of camaraderie. Through this, Rose started to remove into her mind the stranger aspect of Jack as she spent more time with him. However, Rose was caught dancing in a 3rd class area, and from that day on, she was prohibited to be with Jack again. Many more social discrimination happens throughout the story. And when the time Titanic was about to sink, social inferiority was given to low-classes of individuals as they were temporarily isolated and locked down through the means of not letting them enter the higher portion of the ship for survival. Through this, the embodiment of social discrimination was under full visibility- a clear evidence relevant to a Marxist approach. The discretion of poor from aristocratic was the real tragic here. Apart from the fatal casualty of the ship’s wreckage, the dismaying scenario of societal isolation is what makes the love story Rose and Jack full of obscurities and also to all the passengers. Titanic was a depiction of what our society was facing right now. The unfair perspectives between poor and aristocrats was still rampant every where. Just like in titanic, the boat represents our society, once we were bumped into the sole of discrimination, our whole world will experience its greatest downfall under the shallow of the dark unknown.

In totality, I would classify this movie beyond perfection. Apparently, the Titanic itself contains a lot of questions which makes any individual occupied with bombardments. However, the fundamentals located within the movie really employs an innovative way of realizing something. It does not only pertains to a romantic and tragic theme, thus it also instills societal awareness which preserves value and understanding between paupers and opulent individuals. Titanic was an eye-opener that whether you are penniless or deep-pocketed, the treatment should have been the same regardless of your state of being. And to end my review, I must say that Titanic was not the best among the rest, but because of its complexity, the whole ideology of Titanic became the most successful and renowned movie of all.

The Study of the Gothic Element of Double in Poe’s Selected Works

The Study of Doubles in Poe’s Works

General Background

Poe

An important and innovative re-interpreter of the Gothic in the literary world was Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) who asserted ‘that terror is not of Germany, but of the soul’. His stature as a major figure in world literature is primarily based on his highly acclaimed short stories, poems, and critical theories, which established an influential rationale for the short form in both poetry and fiction. Poe is also famous for his Gothic style of writing. Fisher affirms that: “Few would hazard a challenge to long-standing opinion that Poe was a master of the Gothic horror tale, although many might not as readily be aware that he did not invent Gothic fiction” (p.72). Indeed Poe turned the Gothic fiction of the eighteenth-century to the internal cries and desires of human being. Aside from a common theoretical basis, there is a psychological intensity that is characteristic of Poe’s writings, especially the tales of horror that comprise his best and best-known works.

Double

A significant element of Gothic genre is the theme of double. In Gothic (1996), Fred Botting writes that “at the end of nineteenth century familiar Gothic figures-the double and the vampire-reemerged in new shapes with a different intensity and anxious investments as objects of terror”(p.135). It seems so terrible when one looks at everywhere and sees his own image and likeness. The presence of the double, thus, could be interpreted as an explanation for the alienation of human being in the modern world. Botting expresses that “the loss of human identity and the alienation of self from both itself and the social bearings in which a sense of reality is secured are presented in the threatening shapes of increasingly dehumanized environments, mechanic doubles and violent, psychotic fragmentation” (p.157).

Doubles are seen in different forms and shapes in Gothic texts. The mostly used forms are doppelgangers, mirror images, shadows and even mandrakes. In most of Gothic fictions the theme of doubles and mirrors exist. Dealing with their doubles, characters come to know those aspects and facets of their personality which have been alien and unknown to them. Doubles appear in various forms; doppelganger, alter ego, shadow, twins, mirror images and even mandrakes. As Botting asserts, in Poe’s fiction: “Doubles and mirrors are used to splendid effects…” (p.120). However what seems essential to notice is that the meaning which the doubles convey is the same; they are used to show the concept of self-estrangement and self-destruction of the main characters to the readers. This lack of self-knowledge which in many cases leads to self-destruction is emphasized by both authors in their works like “William Wilson”, “The Tell-Tale Heart”, “The Fall of House of Ushers” by Poe. The writer’s use of the idea of ‘The Double’ implies that all people can be misled by appearances through their emotional tendencies, just as everyone can be reassured by knowledge through the operation of his/her rational functions. The term doppelganger which has been remarkably used by Poe will be defined first.

Doppelgänger

According to the Merriam Webster’s Dictionary (2004) doppelganger means “a ghostly counterpart of a living person.” In German it derives from Doppel (double) and Gänger (goer), meaning “double goer”, in German folklore, a wraith or apparition of a living person, as distinguished from a ghost. The concept of the existence of a spirit double, an exact but usually invisible replica of every man, bird, or beast, is an ancient and widespread belief. To meet one’s double is a sign that one’s death is imminent. The doppelganger is a popular symbol of horror literature, and the theme took on considerable complexity.

Some stories offer supernatural explanations for doubles. These doppelgängers are typically, but not always, evil in some way. The double will often impersonate the victim and go about ruining them, for instance through committing crimes or insulting the victim’s friends. Seeing is the primary category here; the doppelganger, as it appears and reappears in literary and other cultures, is above all a thing of visual fascination and terror. Thus notions of doubling involve not only replications of identity, but also transformations in identity, where the self appears to be in the wrong body. A case which combines the two possibilities would be Oscar Wilde’s “Picture of Dorian Gray.” The idea of a phantom ‘double’ has existed throughout recorded history, and still flourishes in superstitions, fairy tales, and folklore throughout the world. It is taken seriously by some psychologists as an example of an out-of-body experience. It figures in many primitive religions, where the ‘double’ is assumed to be the person’s soul. But the doppelgänger concept has also schemed sophisticated people, and induced in them a dread of the unknown and a morbid assumption of doom akin to the responses of primitive groups.

Poe and the Double

One of the best examples of Edgar Allen Poe’s obsession with the theme of the double can be found in his extremely strange story “William Wilson”, the tale of two souls who actually seem to become one. The story begins with a foreshadowing of cryptic reality when the narrator immediately states, “Let me call myself, for the present, William Wilson”. As the story opens, the narrator, a schoolboy, finds himself in the same class with another boy who shares his name. This is not so unusual, except that the narrator feels the other boy takes a perverse delight in copying his “gait, [his] voice, [his] habits, and [his] manner,” thus making himself a virtual copy of the narrator. Eventually the two boys actually take on the same facial features.

Reluctant to reveal his true identity, the narrator leaves the reader wondering if the claim is a lie or perhaps the result of a “conflict within the soul. Further disclosing his inner conflict, the narrator admits “William Wilson [is] a fictitious title not very dissimilar to the real”. Acknowledging the similarities between himself and the other William Wilson, the narrator, points to the first hint of doubles in the story. There are, however, two areas in which the other William Wilson does not resemble the former. Due to some sort of physical defect, the “other” William Wilson’s voice can scarcely be raised above a whisper; and the “other” William Wilson’s every instinct is good. The narrator, on the other hand, proceeds from schoolboy mischievousness to a life of crime, primarily through an addiction to drinking and gambling.

Here, nevertheless, the “other” William Wilson persistently intrudes into the narrator’s life, either warning the narrator that he is going beyond the boundaries of acceptable behavior, or warning others that Wilson is going to hurt them. He feels that he is being conquered by his double: “…a proof of his true superiority; since not to be overcome cost me a perpetual struggle”. Finally revealing the conflict between the two William Wilsons, the narrator addresses the other William Wilson as “Scoundrel! Impostor! Accursed villain!”.

Regarding the narrator’s point of view, at first glance it seems that he is addressing a doppelganger; since everything that this double does sounds unpleasant to him: “although there were times when I could not help observing, with a feeling made up of wonder, abasement, and pique, that he mingled with his injuries, his insults, or his contradictions, a certain most inappropriate, and assuredly most unwelcome affectionateness of manner”. He continues to challenge the double, “You shall not-you shall not dog me unto death! Follow me, or I shall stab you where you stand”. He often calls his double as “my tormentor” or “my antagonist” and “my evil destiny”, since he always annihilates his plans. Eventually the narrator can stand it no longer, and fatally stabs his opponent to get him out of his life. The story ends with both of them covered in blood, and both of them apparently dying.

The “other” Wilson finally finds his voice: “You have conquered me, and I yield. Yet, henceforward art thou also dead — dead to the World, to Heaven, and to Hope! In me didst thou exist — and, in my death, see by this image, which is thine own, how utterly thou hast murdered thyself!”. However, in arguing “Homely Gothic” Botting believes that what happens in “William Wilson” is that: “his mortal foe has been his inverted image, an alter ego that, unlike the doppelganger, is a better self, an external image of good conscience.” This statement is true when the reader recalls that in the course of the story the hero of the tale leads an immoral life; from the time he grows up as he confirms: “I grew self-willed, addicted to the wildest caprices, and a prey to most ungovernable passions.” while he finds, wherever he travels, his illegitimate scheme let down by the figure that haunted him at school.

“This interference often took the ungracious character of advice; advice not openly given, but hinted, or insinuated”. Thus, in this tale of twin-selves, the surviving William Wilson represents man-without-morality. His troublesome double, who constantly interfered with Wilson’s schemes by whispering caution or truth, represents everything that was wholesome or positive in his personality. Poe externalizes his character’s internal struggle. Virtue finally succumbs to vice. However, in murdering his conscience, Wilson failed to achieve the liberation he sought. Instead, his life turned into a living death. The climax turns the tale around; what appeared to be an account of some external haunting is seen as the subjective alteration of a hallucinating individual. “It was Wilson; but he spoke no longer in a whisper, and I could have fancied that I myself was speaking while he said…”

In “The Fall of House of Usher”, doubling spreads throughout the story. The tale highlights the Gothic feature of the doppelganger and portrays doubling in inanimate structures and literary forms. The narrator, for example, first witnesses the house as a reflection in the tarn, or shallow pool that lies alongside the front of the house. The mirror image in the tarn doubles the house, but upside down, an inversely balanced relationship that also characterizes the relationship between Roderick and Madeline. The theme also appears in the metaphor of a mind infected with madness, suggested by Roderick’s poem “The Haunted Palace.”

Also, while Roderick’s declining mental condition is echoed in the collapsing house, overgrown with parasitic plants and wrapped in a sort of unpleasant swamp gas, the fissure which finally destroys the Usher mansion literally brings the theme of dualism to a crashing climax. Roderick’s extreme sensitivity to Romantic literature and his inordinate desire to preserve Madeline’s corpse hint at other important themes, those of decadence and decay. Beside doppelgangers, Poe uses another form of doubles in the story; that of mirror imagery. The House of Usher is also similar to Roderick in their description. The house’s facade, as the narrator describes, resembles a giant face or skull with its eye-like windows and the hair-like fungi that hangs on the house’s facade. The stonework that covers the Usher house is in decay. This stonework reminds the narrator “…of old wood-work which has rotten for long years in some neglected vault”. The Usher House seems so fragile that it seems its instability will cause it to fall. Roderick’s complexion mirrors the house’s facade. Roderick’ large and luminous eyes are a mirror image of the house’s “eye-like” windows. Roderick’s soft and web-like hair resembles the house’s hair-like fungi that hang on the façade. The stonework on the facade looks old just like Usher does. In addition, Usher’s trembling resembles the house’s instability which will cause it to fall. One can see how the Usher house and Roderick Usher mirror each other.

There are other “objects” that can be found in the story that mirror each other. These two “objects” are Madeline Usher, Roderick’s twin sister, and Roderick. Roderick projects his own morbid self-absorption onto the figure of his dying sibling, in effect turning his twin into an external mirror image of his deteriorating mental state. One might say that Madeline is the reflection of Roderick’s mind and the Usher house of which will “fall.” This “fall” might be physical and/or mental. In Roderick’s case, he fits both categories. The similarities and links between Roderick and Madeline are too obvious to be emancipated. One of Roderick Usher’s paintings features a burial vault lit from within, as if he knows about a life-force coming from inside a coffin. Roderick loves his sister like no other. Their birth and death occur at the same time. Both siblings release feelings of gloom and doom.

Madeline appears ghostly, as if she is just an apparition. Roderick too appears deathlike and feels his sister’s every move and presence; when he announces that she is outside the door and has come for him, she appears exactly as he predicts. The elimination of one sibling thus spells the end of the other. Indeed, after entombing his sister, Roderick becomes more disturbed, wild, and fearful, realizing fully that his death time has also arrived. If the two siblings are in fact one in spirit, then their actions may also be interpreted as suicide rather than murder. What seems clear is that Poe does not concern himself with the moral actions of the characters in “The Fall of the House of Usher”; therefore the narrator feels no guilt for having assisted in the entombment of a person who may possibly be alive. The story seeks primarily to stir fear in the reader, with the issue of morality marginalized. The characters operate in an enigmatic universe where all of them, particularly the protagonist and the doppelganger, are equally amoral. These two can be defined as doppelgangers that are of opposite sexes; together they form a unity, of body and mind.

The identification of the narrator in “The Tell-Tale Heart” with the old man is a primary theme of the story. The narrator and the old man are on such equal balance that they seem almost like the same person. Many times throughout the story, the narrator says that he knows how the old man feels. He claims to know the groans of the old man, and that he too had experienced the same moaning – not of pain or sadness but of mortal terror. It is a terror which “arises from the bottom of the soul when overcharged with awe”. The narrator says: “I knew the sound well. Many a night, just at midnight, when the entire world slept, it has welled up from my bosom, deepening, with its echo, the terrors that distracted me. I say I knew it well. I know what the old man felt…” The narrator is familiar with such terrified aggravation quite well: “He (the old man) was still sitting up in the bed, listening; – just as I have done, night after night, hearkening to the death watches in the wall”. Apparently, the protagonist has no rational reason for wanting to murder the old man.

Definitely, he claims the old man has never done him wrong and that he loves him and does not want his money. Why, then, is there a need for murder? “Object there was none. Passion there was none”, says the narrator. The narrator never explains how or why exactly the old man’s “pale blue eye, with a film over it” bothers him so greatly. Indeed he only thinks it was the eye that first prompted him with murderous thoughts: “I think it was his eye! Yes, it was this!”. If one interprets the “eye” not as an organ of vision but as the homonym of “I.”, thus, what the narrator ultimately wants to destroy is the self, and he submits to this urge when he could no longer contain his irresistible sense of guilt. Thus, the murder becomes an act of suicide and that the protagonist and the antagonist are moral equals; In fact it could be suggested that the two characters are the same person. One clue for this argument could be this fact that the police find no trace of an old man in the house. The narrator has hidden him so well that the old man may exist only in the narrator’s mind. Consequently the beating heart can be interpreted as the sound of the narrator’s own heartbeat.

From what was discussed it can be concluded that the element of double in some short stories by Poe is significantly used, but in rather different forms. The similarity is that the element of double in all its forms is used to convey the act of self-estrangement of the characters that finally leads them to their self-destruction.

Works Cited:

Botting, F. (1996). Gothic. London: Rutledge

Botting, F.(2000). In Gothic Darkly: Heterotopia, History, Culture. In D. Punter (ED.), A Companion to Gothic. Oxford: Blackwell. (pp.3-15)

Brennan, M.S. (1997), The Gothic Psyche: Disintegration and Growth in Nineteenth-Century English Literature .Columbia: Camden House, Inc.

Fisher, B. F. (2002). Poe and the Gothic Tradition. In K. J. Hayes. (ED.), The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (pp.72-92)

Massé, M.A. Psychoanalysis and the Gothic. . In D. Punter (ED.), A Companion to Gothic Oxford: Blackwell. (Pp.229-242)

The Elder Scrolls Online Maps

There are many different maps for the elder scrolls online. Here are the main list of maps:

The Elder Scrolls Online/TESO map of Tamriel/Arena: Tamriel is also known as ‘Dawns Beauty’ in Aldmeris or ‘Starry Heart’ in Ehlnofex. It is called ‘Taazokaan’ in the Dragon Language. Arena is one of the continents in Nirn where the games of the elder scrolls series takes place.

The Elder Scrolls map of Skyrim: A vast northern region in Tamriel, home to the Nords, hardy men and women with frost resistance.

Map of Cyrodiil: Cyrodiil is known as the imperial province and you guessed it, home of the imperial race. It is in the centre of Tamriel, where the emperor and the Elder Council make it their home.

TESO Map of Hammerfell: Home of the Redguards and Alik’r Desert, under the control of the Daggerfall covenant.

TESO Map of Aldmeris: Very little is known of the high Elven home land.

TESO Map of Vardenfell: It is a large island in situated in the crescent shape of Morrowind where a race of vampires live there.

TESO Map of Valenwood: The next Elder Scrolls game is supposed to be set in Valenwood, home to the wood elves.

Map of Elsweyr: Home to the Khajiit, under the control of the Aldmeri dominion led by Queen Ayrenn.

Map of Summerset Isles: The Summerset Isles consist of three islands under the control of Queen Ayrenn and the Aldmeri Dominion which is home to the Altmer.

Map of Morrowind: Home land of the Dunmer and the capital of the Ebonheart pact Mournhold.

Map of the Black Marsh: The Black Marsh also known as Argonia as you might of guessed is home of the Argonians.

TESO Map of High Rock: Breton View the High Rock as their homeland province.

Treasure Maps: How you can find treasure maps? When you are walking through the world of Tamriel, you come across chests that are scattered all across the Arena. Here you can find the treasure maps inside. Also when you kill mobs of enemies you can find them on their person.

You can trade or sell your treasure maps if you don’t want to wander about trying to find them. When you open the map it looks like a rough drawn sketch, each bit of the drawing is a reference point you can use to work out the chest’s location. On the map, find something that is rare or unusual as a point to go for. When you get a treasure map you should try and do it straight away, there is a limit to the treasure maps you can carry.

The items you can get are very handy especially when you are just starting out. When you find the location it normally looks like a pile of mud, no need to dig, just click on it. Hope this was helpful to you and good luck on your quest!!!

eSports Guide for New Players

eSports Gaming Information

If you are unsure of what eSports gaming even is, then let’s get you up to speed. Essentially, eSports is a competition in which players battle it out to the league or table when playing online games. These organised competitions are taking the gaming world by storm at the moment and it was even estimated that in 2013 a staggering 71.5 million people tuned in to watch the game. That figure has only risen since then and it is safe to say that eSports are here to stay.

Worldwide last year, the eSports gaming industry generate a massive $325 million, and by the end of this year this is set to rise to $493 million, while its audience is roughly 225 million!

eSports Games Available

There are lots of eSports games out there to enjoy, but there are a few that have been particularly popular amongst players in recent years due to their high quality graphics and fantastic game play! Some of the big names that you are likely to come across when searching for eSports games to play are Starcraft II: Heart of the Swarm which is a strategy game from Blizzard, Super Smash Bros Melee from Warner from Nintendo, Injustice: Gods Among Us from Warner Brothers, Killer Instinct from Microsoft, and finally from Activision comes we would say the most popular all of these games and that is Call of Duty: Ghosts.

Unless you have seen one of these games in action, then it can be quite difficult to describe what is so impressive about them. When playing an eSports game the main aim of the game is to usually kill or defeat the other player and these games are extremely fast which can make them quite difficult to keep up with.

There are also many International tournaments available to play too. Some of the tournaments that you may have heard of are from the game publisher Vale, who run The International Tournament which only features one of its own games Dota 2. To get this tournament venture started, the company used crowdfunding to create a huge prize pool of a whopping $10 million! Other companies also run their own tournaments including Blizzard and their tournaments include eSports games such as Starcraft. Finally, one of the biggest tournaments that you will see within the eSports industry is the League of Legends Championship Series which is run by Riot Games. This tournament is so exciting that it even sold out the famous Staples Centre in just 1 hour!

Healthy Lunch Ideas and Tips

Have you been putting off trying to eat healthily because it’s too expensive, too difficult, or you just can’t seem to make time to prepare a healthy meal? You are not alone. Millions of consumers just like you maintain an unhealthy diet for these reasons, but it’s time to stop gambling with your health.

Research continually shows that your diet can affect how you feel, how you think, how you view yourself, and can directly affect your health:

• Top nutritionists at Harvard have concluded that trans fat could be responsible for as many as 30,000 premature coronary deaths per year!

• By eating at least 5 servings of vegetables and fruits a day, you can reduce your risk of stroke and heart disease by 30%, lose weight, and enhance your immune system so you don’t get sick as often!

• More than one-third of U.S. adults-more than 72 million people-and 16% of U.S. children are obese

With so many negative effects caused by an unhealthy diet, you can’t afford to risk your health and happiness by not eating healthily.

Unhealthy food products are promoted by food groups and restaurant chains because they can be advertised to the consumer as fast, easy, and cost-effective meals. Most consumers choose these products because they think that healthy eating can not be fast, easy, or cost-effective. This assumption, however, is not necessarily true. Healthy eating can be fast, easy, and affordable, and can contribute to a healthy body, healthy mind, and a happier you!

Human’s Ascending to the Fifth Dimension

Dear Readers,

Marifetullah means being aware of Allah (swt). I stated before that the science of Marifetullah has 3 complementary methods as “mind”, “transfer” and “heart”. The “mind” method is applied by the person himself, “transfer” method is by scholars of Islam and “heart” method is by Tasawwuf Scientist. A person begins to know Allah (swt) only after acquiring the knowledge of the three methods. He has a true “Marifetullah”, a perfect “belief” and a real “maturity”.

The last phase of this process is Tasawwuf education. This is a heart education under the observation of a Murshid-I Kamil (Perfect Guide). The student bay’ahs the Murshid-I Kamil on behalf of Rasulullah (s.a.w). In fact, the bay’ah (the oath of allegiance) is to Allah (Swt).

It is ordered in the verse from the Qur’an that:

“Verily those who plight their fealty to thee plight their fealty in truth to Allah; the Hand of Allah is over their hands.” (Fath, 10)

# Tasawwuf is experiencing Islam with its visible and invisible aspects

Tasawwuf is a science of state. The principal of Tasawwuf is living in accordance with the Islamic rules by heart and behavior with its visible and invisible aspects as Ahmed Yasawi, Mawlana Jalal ad-Din Rumi and Mahmut Hudai hazrats lived with takwa and sincerity, but without formalism… Just as in the era of Rasulullah (s.a.w)…

The words, which people repeat in order to get closer to Allah, are called “wird”. “Dhikr” is remembering Allah (swt) by any means.

Tasawwuf institutions, which have helped many people to become mature by reaching true belief up to now, also practice regular daily wird and dhikr programs besides conversations, self-denial and struggle methods to strengthen the love of Allah (swt) in the hearts.

# Daily Wird and Dhikr

Before beginning the daily wird, 3 times Ikhlas and 1 time Fatiha surah are recited for the souls of Rasulullah (s.a.w) and his companions and Silsile-I Aliyye who were the teachers of the spiritual education organizations that date back to times of Rasulullah (s.a.w). The next step is dhikr.

One must be ritually clean to perform daily wird and dhikr. It is begun with Basmala-I Sharif (Bismillahirrahmanirrahim). After giving glory to Allah (swt) and salawat for Rasulullah, tawba and istigfar is made by repenting for the sins and reciting Astagfirullah. And then Kalima-I Tawhid (Lailahe illallah) and the beautiful names of Allah are recited in a certain number.

I witnessed that the regular daily wird and dhikr programs enabled positive effects for many people. These activities make people close to Allah (swt) continuously. A person must avoid harams (the things which are prohibited in Islam), perform his prays regularly and do everything for the sake of Allah (swt) in order to get the advantages of such a daily wird and dhikr program.

# One must keep away from bad people and publishing

One must also be away from the people with world addiction whose hearts are full of darkness.

Don’t forget that there is a path between hearts.

Being together with people whose hearts are full of darkness increase the addiction to world, darken the heart, and sharpen the tendency to unlawful actions. A person then spends the most valuable times of his life with invaluable actions without being aware of Allah (swt).

Try to be together with good people all the time. The good person is the one who reminds us Allah (swt) and the Sirat-I mustaqim (the straight path). We must pray Allah for being together with people who are better than we are. If we are always with good people, we will realize that a love for Allah, His Prophets, good people, all believers, and good habits grows in our heart that advances our heart unconsciously.

The good and bad publishing is just like friends.

Good friends cause benefits whereas bad friends cause harm.

When we are with good people, we learn something from them because of their good behaviors even there is no communication.

Therefore, Rasulullah (s.a.w) ordered:

“A man is upon the religion of his friend, so let one of you look at whom he befriends.” [Tirmidhi]

“Having a conversation with a good person atones the sins of many conversations with bad people.” [Deylemi]

# Marifetullah is spiritual knowledge.

Dear Readers,

We must refrain from the actions Allah forbids like committing adultery, objecting to parents, perjuring, lending and borrowing money with interest, drinking alcohol, gambling, accepting bribe, arrogance, gossip, and meanness. On the other hand, we must obey His rules as praying, fasting, eating and drinking lawful things, being patient, swear to give up just after committing a sin. If we perform the dhikr and wird programs, the desires of our nafs and all the bad feelings as love for real world, arrogance, vindictiveness, envy, covetousness and calumniation disappear in accordance with our sincerity.

“Muhabbetullah” begins filling our hearts instead of them. Thus our hearts begin knowing Allah (swt) and “marifetullah” begins to appear in our hearts. Marifetullah is a spiritual knowledge. It is the knowledge by instinct like a baby knows his mother who is always with him without any conscious knowledge based on any scientific data about his mother.

# The heart’s reaching confidence

After this stage, the heart is opened to meaning world. The person begins understanding some realities through his heart, which he hadn’t realized before. Meaning blindness disappears. The person begins realizing and understanding some realities clearer, which he knew by heart before but evaluated them with doubt and hesitation. Thus the doubts in his belief disappear. A relief, satisfaction, and reliance in Allah, which are impossible to define with words, occur in his heart.

The human at this point, now, is a person that he has passed through the education of Allah (swt) and ascended to the fifth dimension. He is aware of the spiritual realities. And he is a “mature” human, now. He has the signs of all the positive characteristics of a mature person. I gave more detailed information on the subject in my next article.

Be entrusted to Allah.

Domino – The Horse Racing Game

Of all the kinds of games available online, horse racing ones are probably the most paradoxical. These games have that old familiar ring to it which makes you feel like you’ve always known and always played the game even if you have never actually played such a game. But of all the various games in this genre, one name stands out as better than the rest – Domino the Speed Defining colt.

It is, in a way, sad that most people who play this game are completely unaware of the history of the horse. Domino was no ordinary everyday horse used for pleasure riding; he was an American thoroughbred from the nineteenth century who was renowned in his time and later for his extraordinary speed. This speed had been inherited from his great-grandfather, Eclipse, another horse famed for his powerful legs. Since every great hero needs a hamartia, Domino had one too – he did not have much stamina. Over short distances, he was the terror of the racetrack, but if he was forced to gallop for miles on end he would tire out and give up pretty soon (quite a big disadvantage in the nineteenth century because most race tracks were at least two or more miles long). But this speedy steed has lived on past his day and become engrained in every horse race’s heart as the benchmark of speed.

While the bloodline of Domino carries on in the racetrack, one might think that his time has come to an end and he will eventually be forgotten and, if it were not for the internet that would be true! The old chestnut beast is still roaming the world in the form of an online game. Domino is one of the most popular names for various online horse racing games which have become more and more popular these days. Every few horse racing games online has a horse named Domino, and more often than not, they have no idea where this name came from. But, now having known this, such games should become that much more interesting. Most races will give you that one arch rival to give you a run for your money, just like Domino had Dobbin (his own personal arch rival). Since Domino already has a huge reputation in the real world, it is reasonable to thing that he can have the same in the virtual world, provided his jockey is experienced enough.

One thing many people seem to believe is that a horse race can only ever be about gambling and so come to these games with the intention of setting up some stakes. But this is not the reason why the virtual world has resurrected Domino. It’s not for the money, it is for the fun of guiding one of the greatest thoroughbreds of all time through a long course and actually making it out alive! There are plenty of elements to enjoy in such games as opposed to a car racing game. Give it a shot, you might actually like it.